Recommended Reading

Course Required Reading

Recommended Reading

  • Remon Keriakos, Deepa Gopinath 2015. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Journal of Acute Medicine; Volume 4, Issue 4, October 2015, Pages 259–265 (

  • Remon Keriakos, S. Sugumar & N. Hilal. Instrumental vaginal delivery - back to basics. Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology, November 2013; 33: 781-786

  • Bofill JA, Rust OA, Schorr SJ et al. A randomized prospective trial of the obstetric forceps versus the M-cup vacuum extractor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 1785: 1325-30

  • DeLeeuw JW, Struijk PC, Vierhout ME, Wallenbufg HCS. Risk factors for third degree perineal ruptures during delivery. BJOG 2001; 108: 383-7

  • Eason E, Labrecque M, Wells G, Feldman P. Preventing perinal trauma during childbirth: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 95: 464-471

  • Eddy A. Litigating and quantifying maternal damage following childbirth. Clin Risk 1999; 5 (5): 178-180

  • Fitzpatrick M, Behan M, O’Connell R, O’Herlihy C. A randomized clinical trial comparing primary overlap with approximation repair of third degree obstetric tears. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183: 1220-4

  • Gjessing H, Backe B, Sahlin Y. Third degree obstetric tears: outcome after primary repair. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998; 77: 736-40

  • Haadem K, Gudmundsson S. Can women with intrapartum rupture of anal sphincter still suffer after effects two decades later? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1997; 76: 601-3

  • Johanson RB, Heycock E, Carter J et al. Maternal land child health after assisted vaginal delivery: five year follow up of a randomised controlled study comparing forceps and ventouse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1999; 106: 5444-549

  • Lal, M, Mann Ch, Callender A et al. Does Cesarean delivery prevent anal incontinence? Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101: 305-312

  • Malouf AJ, Norton CS, Engel AF, Nicholls RJ, Kamm MA. Long term results of overlapping anterior anal sphincter repair for obstetric trauma. Lancet 2000; 355: 260-65

  • Peleg D, Kennedy CM, Merrill D, Zlatnik FJ. Risk of repetition of severe perineal laceration. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93: 1021-4

  • Shek KL, Dietz H. Intrapartum risk factors for levator trauma. BJOG 2010: 117: 1485-1492

  • Spydslaug A, Trogstad LIS, Skrondal A et al. Recurrent risk of anal sphincter laceration among women with vaginal deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105: 207-313

  • Sultan AH, Johanson RB, Carter JE. Occult anal sphincter trauma following randomized forceps and vacuum delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998; 61: 113-119

  • Sultan Ah, Editorial: obstetric perineal injury and anal incontinence. Clin Risk 1999: 5 (5) 193-6

  • Wu J M, Hundley AF, Visco AG. Elective primary Cesarean delivery: attitudes of urogynaecology and maternal-fetal medicine specialists. Obstet Gynecol 2005: 105: 301-306